What Do Hummingbirds Eat? (The Surprising Answer)

Hummingbirds are fascinating creatures known for their vibrant colors, swift flight, and incredible energy levels. Their diet plays a vital role in maintaining these qualities, fueling their high metabolism and active lifestyle. Primarily, hummingbirds consume nectar from flowers or sugar water solutions, which provide them with the necessary sucrose for their energy needs. This rich source of nectar helps them maintain their fast-paced lives and agile flight capabilities.

In addition to nectar, hummingbirds also eat insects and arthropods. Their diets are more flexible than we once believed, as many species of hummingbirds are excellent aerial hunters. They feast on small insects like fruit flies, mosquitoes, and gnats, as well as spiders, to ensure a well-rounded, nutritious diet. This variety in food sources is particularly important for baby hummingbirds during their growth and development stages, as well as during seasonal migration.

Key Takeaways

  • Hummingbirds primarily consume nectar for energy and maintain their high metabolism.
  • Insects and arthropods, such as fruit flies and spiders, are also an essential part of their diet.
  • Multiple food sources are crucial for various stages of a hummingbird’s life, including growth and migration.

What Do Hummingbirds Eat? Types of Food Sources

Hummingbirds have a diverse diet that provides them with the essential nutrients and energy they need to thrive. Their food sources can be broadly categorized into three main types: nectar, insects, and tree sap.

Read Next: What Do Little Birds Eat?


One of the primary food sources for hummingbirds is nectar, which can be derived from tubular flowers or sugar-water solutions. This high-sucrose diet fuels their swift flight and high metabolism, making it an abundant and popular source of energy for these energetic little birds. Flowers rich in nectar, like tubular flowers, are especially attractive to hummingbirds, as they provide a natural and easily accessible source of sucrose.

Interestingly, hummingbirds have unique tongues adapted to sipping nectar from flowers with great efficiency. Their long, slender tongues help them reach deep into flowers to extract nectar.


Insects also play a significant role in a hummingbird’s diet. Contrary to what was once believed, hummingbirds are not strictly nectar feeders. In fact, many species are excellent aerial hunters, consuming a wide variety of small insects, spiders, and larvae. Some common prey items include flies, aphids, gnats, and mosquitoes. These protein-rich food sources provide hummingbirds with essential nutrients that nectar alone cannot offer. In addition to hunting insects in-flight, hummingbirds also practice a behavior known as gleaning, where they pick insects off of leaves, branches, or other surfaces.

Tree Sap

Tree sap offers another important food source for hummingbirds, particularly when nectar availability is low. Sapsuckers, a type of woodpecker, drill small holes in trees to extract sap, creating a valuable resource for hummingbirds. By visiting these sap wells, hummingbirds can find a concentrated source of sugars and water that helps support their energetic lifestyles even when other food sources might be scarce.


Additionally, sand and ashes may be supplementary sources of nutrients for hummingbirds. It’s thought that they may consume small amounts of sand to obtain essential minerals that are not available in their nectar-based diet.

Attracting Hummingbirds to Your Backyard

Creating a hummingbird-friendly backyard involves providing them with a variety of food sources, including nectar-rich flowering plants and well-maintained hummingbird feeders. By incorporating a range of native flowers, you can attract these captivating birds to your outdoor space and support their natural feeding habits.

Planting Native Flowers

Start by planting native flowers such as honeysuckle and coral bells. These blossoms provide ample pollen and nectar for hummingbirds, while also offering a gorgeous visual element to your backyard. In addition, consider adding other nectar-rich plants like trumpet vines, bee balms, and salvia that will further attract and sustain these tiny birds.

Setting Up Hummingbird Feeders

When setting up hummingbird feeders, choose options with bright colors, particularly red, to catch their attention. Position these feeders near flowering plants for easy access and make sure to clean them regularly to prevent mold, which can be harmful to hummingbirds. A simple nectar recipe that is attractive to these birds can be made by dissolving one part white sugar in four parts boiling water, then allowing it to cool before filling the feeder.

If you’re interested in setting up a hummingbird feeder, consider placing it near a water source like a shallow basin or birdbath. This can attract more hummingbirds and help provide them with necessary hydration, especially in warmer climates.

Pro Tip: Setting up a designated feeding station with multiple feeders will entice more hummingbirds to visit your yard. This setup can provide a feast for their high-energy needs, furthermore enticing them to become frequent flyers in your outdoor sanctuary.

Creating a Hummingbird-Friendly Environment

Aside from providing nectar sources, it’s essential to create a suitable environment for hummingbirds to feel comfortable in your backyard. This can be achieved by incorporating varying layers of vegetation, where they can comfortably seek shelter, perch, and nest. Establish a combination of low-growing plants, tall trees, and medium-height shrubs to enhance the overall habitat for hummingbirds.

I’s worth noting that some hummingbirds are capable of surviving year-round in specific locations. These resilient creatures can adapt their feeding habits to survive cooler temperatures and a scarcity of suitable food sources. By providing a reliable and safe environment for them, you can help these lovely birds thrive in your area.

What to Be Cautious About Feeding Hummingbirds

Hummingbirds primarily rely on nectar from flowers or sugar water solutions for their sustenance. This provides them with the energy they need due to their high metabolism and swift flight patterns. In addition, these birds also consume small insects such as spiders, flies, aphids, gnats, and mosquitoes. This varied diet helps meet their nutrient requirements, making hummingbirds more flexible in their food choices than previously believed.

Stay Away from Artificial Sweeteners

When it comes to feeding hummingbirds, it’s essential to avoid using artificial sweeteners, as these can be harmful to them. Instead, use a simple sugar and water solution. It’s also important to know that while native flowering plants are an excellent source of nectar for hummingbirds, supplemental feeders can provide additional sustenance during nesting season and migration.

Harmful Dyes

It’s important to note that while hummingbirds are attracted to the color red, adding red dye to the sugar water solution is discouraged. Red food coloring can be harmful to birds, and they will find the feeder without any additional coloring. Instead, opt for a feeder that already has red accents or features to pique their interest.

Prevent Mold Growth

Unfortunately, mold can grow quickly in hummingbird feeders and cause illness and even death in hummingbirds. To slow mold and bacteria growth, keep hummingbird food in the feeder by positioning it somewhere shady, if possible. Depending on how hot the weather is, you may need to replace hummingbird food as much as every few days, or as little as every week.

Clean out the feeder thoroughly with hot water each time you refill it, although you may want to try to avoid using soap as it can leave an aftertaste for hummingbirds. However, if mold appears, you will need to clean and soak the feeder in a diluted bleach and water solution before refilling.

Limit Pesticides

Be mindful of using pesticides around your birding area, as these can contaminate the nectar and harm the hummingbirds ingesting it. Research has shown that even a small amount of exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides can affect a hummingbird’s metabolism and potentially decrease survival rates. Considering this, it’s generally safer to opt for organic methods of protecting your garden.

The Role of Nectar in Hummingbirds’ Diet

  • Nectar is the primary source of food for hummingbirds and plays a crucial role in their survival. Found in flowers, natural nectar contains around 50% sucrose, which provides an abundance of energy to these small birds. In fact, hummingbirds need to consume double their own body weight in food each day to support their high metabolism and swift flight patterns source.
  • Besides natural nectar, hummingbirds can also benefit from sugar water solutions offered by humans. A sugar solution mimics the nectar found in flowers, giving these tiny creatures easy access to energy and hydration. This created hummingbird nectar can be an essential supplement in urban areas or gardens where flowers and natural nectar sources are scarce source.
  • The high sucrose content in both natural nectar and sugar water provides hummingbirds with the fuel they need for a wide range of activities, including foraging and mating displays. Moreover, the minerals and nutrients found in nectar contribute to the overall health of the birds source.
  • While nectar is a great source of energy, it is important to note that it does not completely fulfill the dietary needs of these birds. For a well-rounded diet, hummingbirds also consume insects which provide them with essential proteins and minerals that nectar alone cannot deliver source.

Insects and Arthropods in the Hummingbird Diet

Hummingbirds, known for their extraordinary flying abilities and vibrant colors, have a diverse diet. While they primarily consume nectar for energy, these tiny birds also rely on insects and arthropods to fulfill their nutritional needs.

  • Protein is an essential part of a hummingbird’s diet, and they obtain this nutrient from various insects such as flies, gnats, mosquitoes, and aphids. In addition, arthropods like spiders also serve as a valuable food source for these birds. It’s worth knowing that a major study found that around 79% of 140 tropical hummingbird species consumed arthropods as part of their diet.
  • By consuming insects and arthropods, hummingbirds not only acquire much-needed protein but also obtain essential vitamins and minerals. These nutrients help the birds keep their feathers vibrant, muscles strong, and support their high metabolic rate. Additionally, some insects like bees and other flying insects provide hummingbirds with an extra dose of fat, crucial for energy storage during migration or cooler climate periods.
  • Moreover, one of the feeding techniques employed by hummingbirds is called gleaning. This method involves the birds carefully searching leaves and branches for small insects and arthropods hidden among them. Gleaning is an essential adaptation that helps hummingbirds to be efficient hunters in various environments.

What Baby Hummingbirds Eat

Baby hummingbirds, also known as hatchlings, have a unique diet that is essential for their rapid growth and development. Their diet primarily consists of small insects and nectar, providing them with the necessary nutrients and amino acids for their growth.

In the first 15 days of their lives, the mother hummingbird takes full responsibility for feeding the hatchlings. She carefully collects small insects such as ants, mites, gnats, and mosquitoes, which are rich in protein, as well as nectar that provides them with energy. The mother then regurgitates this mixture, using her beak to funnel the partially digested food into the babies’ mouths. This feeding process takes place 2-3 times per hour, ensuring that the baby hummingbirds receive an ample supply of sustenance.

The composition of the baby hummingbirds’ diet varies depending on the species and their habitat. However, it is important that they get as many insects as possible for their proper growth. Insects provide not only amino acids but also vital nutrients such as calcium, necessary for building strong bones and beaks.

As the baby hummingbirds grow, their diet remains consistent, with the same essential components of insects and nectar. Within the confined space of their nests, which are about the size of a thimble and made with stretchy spiderwebs, the little birds undergo rapid growth, transforming from featherless and fragile creatures to strong, agile, and dynamic flyers.

With the diligent care of the mother hummingbird, these little creatures receive the nourishment they need to grow into the fascinating and enchanting birds we love to observe.

Species-Specific Diets and Migration Patterns

Hummingbirds, belonging to the family Trochilidae, have unique diets and migration patterns depending on the species. The primary component of their diet is nectar, which provides energy for their high metabolism and swift flight. However, they also consume a notable amount of arthropods like spiders, flies, aphids, gnats, and mosquitoes, with one study finding that 79% of 140 species of tropical hummingbirds had arthropod remains in their stomachs 1.

In North America, different hummingbird species will forage for insects in various ways. For example, Allen’s hummingbirds rely on sap wells drilled by sapsuckers in trees for insects, while the bee hummingbird, the smallest bird in the world, mainly feeds on nectar but also consumes insects like midges and leafhoppers 2.

Migration plays a crucial role in hummingbird diet shifts. As the seasons change, flowering patterns of native plants transform, affecting the availability of nectar. Hummingbirds that migrate across North America may fly from their southern wintering grounds to the northern breeding territories, traversing distances up to 2,000 miles in some instances. This journey includes crossing the Gulf Coast, posing a significant challenge requiring ample food sources and strategic feeding patterns.

During migration, the hummingbird’s diet undergoes adjustments. For instance, they consume a higher proportion of insects before migrating to meet the increased energy demands while in transit 3. Essential to their survival, insects play an even more significant role in providing necessary protein and nutrients during the migration period.

Native plants along the migration routes of hummingbirds play a vital role in supporting these tiny birds with abundant food sources. Flowering plants provide nectar, and many harbor insects that serve as supplementary food for hummingbirds.

Maintaining Clean Feeders and Safe Nutrition

  • Keeping your hummingbird feeders clean and providing a safe, nutritious diet for these tiny birds is essential to their health and well-being. To make a proper hummingbird nectar, simply mix one part sugar to four parts water and bring the solution to a boil. Boiling the water not only helps dissolve the sugar, but it also helps kill any bacteria or mold that might be present. Once the solution has cooled, it’s ready to be added to your feeder.
  • When it comes to maintaining the cleanliness of your feeder, it’s crucial to empty and clean the feeder regularly, particularly in hot weather where the solution can spoil quickly. In colder weather, the sugar water solution won’t spoil as fast, but keeping the feeder clean is still essential to ensure your hummingbirds a safe and healthy dining experience. To clean the feeder, use mild soap and water, and be sure to rinse thoroughly to remove all soap residue.
  • In addition to the sugar water, hummingbirds also consume insects and spiders, which provide essential proteins and other nutrients for their diet. Providing a mix of natural food sources, like flowering plants, and supplemental feeders, enables hummingbirds to receive a well-rounded diet.
  • Remember to keep your feeders clean, use the proper sugar water solution, and avoid using harmful dyes in your hummingbird nectar. With a bit of care and consideration, you can create a safe and nutritious environment for these beautiful creatures to visit and thrive.

Frequently Asked Questions

What foods are important in a hummingbird’s diet?

Hummingbirds primarily rely on nectar from flowers and sugar water from feeders for their energy needs. This high-energy food is essential for maintaining their rapid metabolism. They also consume insects and spiders to obtain vital proteins, fats, and other nutrients.

What types of flowers do hummingbirds prefer?

Hummingbirds are attracted to brightly colored flowers, especially those with shades of red, orange, and pink. They prefer tubular-shaped flowers, such as trumpet vines, salvia, and honeysuckle, which allow them to easily access the nectar with their long bills and tongues.

How do hummingbirds get their nutritional needs met?

Hummingbirds meet their nutritional needs through a diverse diet. The nectar they consume provides carbohydrates for energy, while insects and spiders contribute proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals needed for growth, reproduction, and overall health. Visit Birdfact for more information.

Do hummingbirds consume insects?

Yes, hummingbirds consume insects and spiders to supplement their diet. These small invertebrates provide essential nutrients not found in nectar alone. Insects and spiders are an important source of protein, which helps hummingbirds maintain their muscle mass and supports bodily functions.

What’s the best way to make homemade hummingbird nectar?

To make homemade hummingbird nectar, mix four parts water with one part white granulated sugar. Bring the mixture to a boil, stirring to ensure the sugar dissolves. Allow the mixture to cool before filling your feeder. Avoid using honey, brown sugar, or artificial sweeteners as these can be harmful to hummingbirds. Audubon.org provides additional information on preparing nectar.

Is fruit safe for hummingbirds to eat?

While hummingbirds do not typically consume fruit, small amounts of fruit juice can provide a supplemental source of energy in their diet. However, it is not advisable to offer whole fruits as these can be difficult for them to consume and may attract pests. Focus on providing nectar, insects, and appropriate flowers to support the nutritional needs of hummingbirds.


  1. The Real Diet of Hummingbirds – AllAboutBirds
  2. What and How Often Do Hummingbirds Eat? – Birds and Blooms
  3. Hummingbird Food – The Hummingbird Guide

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