Bluebird Male vs Female: How to Tell Them Apart

Distinguishing male and female bluebirds is easier when you know what to look for—which is mostly in their plumage.

Here’s a summary of the bluebird male vs female:

  • Male bluebirds have brighter and more vivid blue backs than females, which sport grayish-blue backs.
  • The male bluebirds have more vibrant colors overall, with richer reds or oranges on their breasts.
  • During the breeding season, males exhibit more vocal or territorial behavior than females, which may also help with identification.

Bluebird Male vs Female: Easiest Way to Distinguish Them

The most noticeable difference between male and female bluebirds lies in their color pattern.

In general, male bluebirds across different species have bright blue plumage on their back.

Female bluebirds, in contrast, present more subtle colors, with grayish-blue shades.

Read Also: Blue Jay vs Bluebird

Male Bluebird Color Pattern

Let’s take a closer look at male Eastern Bluebirds, for an example.

You can see that they showcase a brilliant royal blue on their back and head, making it easier for them to attract a mate.

This bright blue coloration also extends to their tail feathers, with some orange or brown accents on the edges.

Additionally, the primary wing feathers also exhibit a blue shade, adding to the overall captivating appearance of the male bluebird.

On the chest, they display striking warm red-brown tones, as you can check out on All About Birds.

Female Bluebird Color Pattern

In contrast, female Eastern Bluebirds have a more muted coloration.

Their feathers are predominantly dull gray with some hints of blue, allowing them to blend in with their surroundings and protect their nests from potential threats.

The chest feathers may exhibit an orange or brown tinge, but this coloration is less prominent compared to their male counterparts.

Female tail feathers and primary wing feathers generally have a grayish-blue color, which again serves the purpose of camouflage and nesting safety.

Physical Similarities Between Male and Female Bluebirds


Both male and female bluebirds are small-sized birds, with little difference in their overall size.

They tend to have a size that is comparable to most songbirds, making it difficult to distinguish between the sexes based on size alone.


The length of a bluebird varies depending on its age and specific species.

However, in general, both male and female bluebirds have a similar body length, usually ranging between 6 to 8 inches.


When considering the wingspan, male and female bluebirds have comparable measurements, so you can’t really tell which is which this way.

For reference, their wingspans are generally within the range of 10 to 13 inches.

Read Also: Bluebird Eggs vs Robin Eggs

Breeding and Nesting Behaviors

Breeding Season

Eastern bluebirds typically begin their breeding season in early spring, around March or April. During this time, they engage in courtship displays to attract a mate.

Male Eastern bluebirds can be identified by their reddish breast area, blue feathers on the upper part of their body, and a mostly white belly.

As for females, they have a grayish-blue head, buffy throat and breast area, and mostly light blue tails and wings1.

Nesting Site Selection

When it comes to selecting a nesting site, bluebirds prefer natural cavities or nest boxes in open areas with short grass and plenty of perches nearby.

They often choose locations near their territory’s edge, using their keen sense of sight and hearing to detect potential predators.

Once the pair has established a suitable nesting location, they work together to build their nest using materials such as grass, pine needles, and sometimes even animal hair for added insulation2.

Monogamous Relationships

Eastern bluebirds are known to form monogamous relationships, with pair bonds becoming official once the male and female interact and are seen together3.

However, it’s important to note that while pair formation is established during the breeding season, some bluebirds may occasionally switch partners between seasons or in the event of their mate’s death.


When it comes to incubation, the female bluebird is responsible for keeping the eggs warm and safe. Incubation lasts approximately 12-14 days for Eastern bluebirds4.

The female typically starts incubating right after the last egg is laid, but sometimes, she may wait a day or two before beginning the process.

During the incubation period, the male bluebird plays a vital role in providing food and protecting the nesting site from potential intruders or predators.

Once the eggs hatch, the chicks remain in the nest for approximately 16-22 days before they are ready to leave and explore the world with their parents5.

Bluebird Species Found in North America

In North America, there are three main species of bluebirds that can be found across various regions.

They belong to the thrush family and are widely known for their vibrant colors and distinct appearances.

The three species are the Eastern Bluebird, Western Bluebird, and Mountain Bluebird.

Eastern Bluebird

The Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) is a fascinating species primarily found in the eastern half of the United States and parts of southeastern Canada.

These small songbirds usually have bright blue plumage with a red-orange chest and white belly.

The females, while somewhat duller than the males, still exhibit some degree of blue coloration.

Eastern Bluebirds are known to nest in holes in trees or specially-designed birdhouses, often found along “bluebird trails.”

Some interesting facts about Eastern Bluebirds include:

  • They are distantly related to the American Robin, another common thrush.
  • Eastern Bluebirds primarily feed on insects and berries.
  • They can raise multiple broods in a single breeding season.

Western Bluebird

Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) inhabit open parklands of the American West, showcasing their brilliant blue-and-rusty plumage.

Similar to their eastern counterparts, male Western Bluebirds exhibit brighter colors than their gray-brown, blue-tinged female counterparts.

These small thrushes also nest in holes in trees or nest boxes and occasionally gather in small flocks outside of the breeding season to feed on insects.

A few key characteristics of Western Bluebirds:

  • They prefer to live in open spaces with scattered trees and shrubs.
  • Western Bluebirds have a notable musical call, often heard in the early morning or evening.
  • The blue coloration of their feathers is due to the microscopic structure of the feathers, not pigmentation.

Mountain Bluebird

The Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is primarily found in the open mountain meadows and high-altitude regions of western North America.

They are known for their stunning sky-blue plumage in males and a duller gray-blue in females.

Unlike their eastern and western cousins who nest in tree holes or boxes, Mountain Bluebirds often nest in crevices on cliffs or rocks.

Notable traits of Mountain Bluebirds:

  • They are the least studied among the three North American bluebird species.
  • Mountain Bluebirds have a swooping, agile flight pattern as they hunt for insects in their high-altitude habitats.
  • During winter, Mountain Bluebirds can form large flocks and migrate to lower elevations in search of food.

Bluebird Behavior and Communication

Singing and Calls

Bluebirds are known for their melodious songs and a variety of calls they use to communicate with each other.

Male bluebirds typically sing to attract a mate and establish territory, while females also sing occasionally, but primarily use calls to communicate with their mates.

These calls can convey different messages such as alarm or distress, chick hunger, parent-chick interactions, and even sharing location with their partner.

The songs of bluebirds consist of series of melodious notes, often associated with their joyful demeanor.

These avian musicians are especially active during the dawn and dusk, when they engage in a symphony of twittering chirps and whistles.

Social Interactions

Bluebirds are highly social creatures, often interacting with their fellow species in a variety of ways.

They establish hierarchies within their communities, with dominant individuals displaying assertive postures such as puffing up their feathers, raising their wings, and showing off their brightly colored plumage.

Pair bonding in bluebirds is a crucial part of their social behavior. These bonds can last for an entire breeding season, or even multiple seasons for some pairs.

The male and female spend time together, engaging in activities such as mutual preening, feeding each other, and chasing off potential rivals.

During the nesting season, bluebird parents diligently care for their nest, eggs, and offspring.

Both the male and female share responsibilities in brooding, feeding, and protecting their young. This nurturing behavior ensures that their chicks have the best possible chance of survival.

Range and Habitat of Bluebirds

United States and Regions of North America

Eastern Bluebirds can be found throughout the eastern half of the United States and into southeastern Canada.

In the Western part of the U.S. down to Central Mexico, you have Western Bluebirds.

Similarly, Mountain Bluebirds inhabit the Western parts of North America, from Alaska all the way down to Central Mexico.

Habitat Preferences

Bluebirds prefer open woodlands, farmlands, and orchards, as these habitats provide them with ample food sources and nesting opportunities.

They generally choose nesting sites in natural tree hollows, old woodpecker holes, or birdhouses.

As primarily insectivorous birds, bluebirds are drawn to areas with abundant invertebrates such as insects and spiders.

In addition to natural nesting sites, Eastern Bluebirds can also utilize man-made nest boxes as part of their habitat.

These nest boxes should be:

  • Placed in open areas with access to perching sites
  • Mounted at least 5 feet above the ground
  • Designed with an entrance hole of 1.5 to 2 inches in diameter

By providing suitable nesting sites, bluebirds can successfully make use of various habitats, from natural woodlands to human-altered landscapes.

Diet of Bluebirds

Bluebirds have a diet mainly consisting of insects and berries. They are highly skilled at catching insects, often hovering and fluttering in the air to snatch them up.

Their diet helps maintain a healthy ecosystem as they feed on various insects such as beetles, caterpillars, and grasshoppers.

In addition, bluebirds also enjoy consuming berries from native plants, making them valuable pollinators.

During different seasons, the diet of bluebirds can vary. For instance, in warmer months, they primarily feed on insects, while during colder months, their diet relies more on berries and fruits.

Some common berries bluebirds enjoy are from plants like dogwood, sumac, and viburnum.

Male vs. Female Bluebird Feeding Behaviors

Male bluebirds play an essential role in the feeding process.

During courtship, males are commonly seen singing and fluttering in front of the female with spread wings and tail. These displays serve as a way to show their ability to provide food and protection for their future families.

Additionally, male bluebirds have been observed feeding their female partners during the nesting period, further demonstrating their dedication to the success of their offspring.

Feeding Bluebirds

To attract bluebirds to your yard, you can offer them mealworms, either live, dried, canned, or roasted.

This will help supplement their diet and provide them with essential nutrients and extra energy, especially during nesting season when they need proper nourishment to raise their offspring.

When feeding bluebirds, it’s crucial to ensure the food is clean, fresh, and placed in a safe location to minimize the risk of predation or disease transmission.

Tips for Attracting Bluebirds to Your Garden

Bluebird Houses

One of the most effective ways to attract bluebirds to your garden is by providing them with a suitable bluebird house, also known as a nest box.

  • These birdhouses should have an opening of approximately 1.5 inches in diameter to accommodate bluebirds comfortably.
  • Make sure to mount the birdhouse on a pole, tree, or other sturdy structure, and keep the entrance facing away from the prevailing winds in your area.
  • When selecting a location for your bluebird house, choose an open area with short grass and some available perches nearby, such as fences or branches. This will help the bluebirds keep an eye out for potential predators and feel more secure when nesting.

Related Reading: How to Attract Bluebirds to Bluebird Houses

Bluebird Feeders

Bluebirds have a different diet compared to other backyard birds, so providing the right food source is crucial for attracting them.

  • Consider offering mealworms in bluebird feeders, which are a favorite treat for these birds. You can find mealworms at pet stores or online, but be sure to purchase live or freeze-dried mealworms, as bluebirds are not likely to be attracted to dead ones.
  • In addition to mealworms, bluebirds are also fond of fruits like berries. Offering a mixture of fruits and mealworms in your bluebird feeders will encourage these lovely birds to visit your garden more frequently.

Read Also: How to Attract Bluebirds to Feeder


Another important aspect of attracting bluebirds is providing a clean and accessible water source.

  • Bluebirds are particularly attracted to moving water, so adding a small fountain or dripper to your birdbath can make it even more enticing for them.
  • Ensure the water is clean and unobstructed, as this will encourage bluebirds to drink and bathe regularly, increasing their chances of returning to your garden.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the differences between male and female bluebirds?

Male and female bluebirds have distinct physical differences, mainly in coloration. Males are generally more vibrant, with bright blue plumage on their backs and orange on their chests.

Females, on the other hand, display more muted colors with a grayish-blue back and a lighter orange or white chest area ^[1^].

Do male and female bluebirds have different colors?

Yes, male and female bluebirds exhibit different colors in their plumage.

Males showcase striking, bright blue and orange feathers, while females display more understated, grayish-blue and pale orange or white feathers ^[1^].

Are there any size differences between male and female bluebirds?

Size differences between male and female bluebirds are minimal and may not be easily noticeable in the field.

However, in general, males might be slightly larger than females, although this is not a reliable characteristic for distinguishing between the sexes.

Do male and female bluebirds have distinct behaviors?

There can be differences in behavior between male and female bluebirds, particularly during the breeding season.

Males are often more territorial and may engage in displays to attract a mate, while females are responsible for building nests and incubating eggs ^[4^].

But overall, both sexes participate in raising their young and taking care of the nest.

How do the calls of male and female bluebirds differ?

Both male and female bluebirds make similar calls, but the male’s song is typically more elaborate and melodious.

Females may sing more muted, brief, and less complex songs than their male counterparts.

The male’s song serves a dual purpose: to defend its territory and attract a mate, while the female’s song may communicate with her partner or signal her presence to other birds.



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